Home | Computer Misuse Act 1990 | Expert Evidence | Expert Determination | Michael J L Turner | Services | Contact

Computer Evidence


Home > Cases > DSW> Article
E-mail Michael Turner e-mail Michael Turner
Print friendly page Print-friendly CV
E-mail this site Tell a colleague!

Case of Donald Stewart Whyte

The following text of an article by Michael J L Turner published in Computers and Law, October 2010 is archived at:

http://www.computerevidence.co.uk/Cases/DSW/Articles/Donald Stewart Whyte.htm

R v Donald Stewart Whyte

Terrorism - Conspiracy to cause explosions on aircraft, conspiracy to murder

Woolwich Crown Court, 7 September 2009


Computer evidence has proved to be a highly significant source of evidence in virtually all cases of terrorism, including the 2006 transatlantic aircraft bomb plot cases.

For some years it has been standard practice when raiding a terrorist suspect's home to seize all computers and storage media. Given the age of many suspects, that strategy will often reveal large numbers of PCs and storage media that were once used by parents/siblings and may have long since been consigned to the cellar or loft.

The disadvantage of this approach has been the difficulty in many cases of attributing material found on a shared computer/storage device to use by a specific family member. This "all-in" strategy has yielded an avalanche of evidence and police computer examiners have had to adopt appropriate tactics, including the use of automatic, scripted searches using appropriate search terms.


In R v Donald Stewart Whyte (Woolwich Crown Court, 7 September 2009), the defendant was charged with conspiracy to cause explosions on aircraft and conspiracy to murder.

Hydrogen peroxide

Using a scripted search with appropriate search terms, a police computer examiner identified a fragment of a file in unallocated space that contained the term "Hydrogen peroxide". When I examined the contextual evidence around this fragment I found that it had come from the home page of a US company that described itself as:

FMC Corporation is one of the world's foremost, diversified chemical companies with leading positions in agricultural, industrial and consumer markets.

The hidden metadata keywords of the FMC home page listed a number of chemicals, and they included Hydrogen peroxide. There was no other hit for the term Hydrogen peroxide on the entire hard disk drive.

Examining the browser history records, I constructed a timeline and found that the visit to the FMC site was in an online session largely devoted to searching recruitment agency web sites for positions in the retail sector.

The defence then argued that my findings were consistent with the defendant's instructions that at the time of the police raid, he was unemployed and actively looking for work; he had previously worked for a major white goods retailer; and that this retail sector was known by the term "Fast Moving Consumer Goods" or its acronym. Furthermore, it was argued, it appeared likely that the visit to the FMC website resulted from a typo of a single letter - FMC instead of FMCG. If true, that one letter typo may have cost the defendant a 29 month spell on remand, including 16 months spent in custody.

I was subsequently instructed to locate and date versions of a leaflet Look at Islam that denounced violence and was alleged to have been written by the defendant.

The defendant was acquitted following a seven-month trial.




Copyright Michael J L Turner 2010 - 2017